Microorganisms may function as decomposers or primary producers in the biosphere. Humans make use of some micro-organisms in industries, and some useful enzymes are gotten from them.
BENEFITS OF MICRO-ORGANISMS
In nature, micro-organisms like bacteria and fungi help improve the soil fertility when they decompose and convert the remains of dead plants and animals in useful nutrients in the soil. They carry out microbial actions on dead organisms to release inorganic substances like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, phosphates and sulphates.
Microorganisms are also useful and important in the food industries. They are used to carry out fermentation processes. Here they are used to produce different foods like yogurt, bread, cheese and alcoholic beverages. Not only are they used in the food industry, but also in medicine. Micro-organisms such as Penicillium notatum and Streptomy griseus are used as antibiotics in medicine.
Prices of products are reduced when microorganisms are used to produce them. In the extraction of metals, bacteria are used to extract metals from their ores. A leaching solution will have to be mixed with the metal ore as it contains the rock or ore dissolving bacteria. The activity of the bacteria releases the metal ions from the ore, and these metal ions are further dissolved to form a solution in which the pure metal is extracted.
Yeast is an important microorganism in the production of palm wine. As the fresh sap of a palm tree is collected, it contains a sugar and yeast solution. The yeast then ferments the sugar and converts it to alcohol. So microorganisms are useful in many ways just like they are also harmful in many ways.